Nursing: A Guide to Doing Research in the HSU Library
Before beginning your research project, it is recommended that you think about how comprehensive your research must be, how current your sources of information need to be, and your intended audience's level of expertise. Then define your research topic as specifically as possible and don't be afraid to refine your topic as you learn more about it. Suggested guidelines for doing library research follow and may be adapted to fit your needs.
Table of Contents
- How do I find background information on my topic?
- How do I find books on my topic?
- How do I find articles on my topic?
- Another way to research -- via citations!
- Keeping Current
- Does the Library have the item I need?
- If the Library doesn't have the item, where can I get it?
- What about resources on the Internet/Web?
- Critically evaluate the information you find
Reference Materials -- can provide you with background information, major theories or researchers, and definitions of key terms. Print and selected electronic reference materials are listed in the HSU Library Catalog and may be located by adding terms such as encyclopedia?, director?, dictionar?, etc. to your search. You can also search for electronic and print reference materials by choosing Reference Collection (including Eref) from the pull-down "Limit To:"menu.
Examples of reference materials relevant to nursing appear below. Print books shelved in the reference collection have ref before the call number. Those books without ref in the call number are in the main book stacks on the third floor.
of Nursing, 2nd ed. London : A. & C. Black, c2007.
- Encyclopedia of Elder Care: the comprehensive resource on geriatric and social care, 2nd ed. New York, NY : Springer Pub., c2008.
- Encyclopedia of public health. Lester Breslow, editor. New York, N.Y. : Macmillan Reference USA, c2002. Also available in print (ref RA423 .E53 2002)
- English & Spanish Medical Words & Phrases, 3rd ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, c2004 (ref R121 .E575 2004)
- Fitzpatrick, Joyce J. Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, 2nd ed. New York : Springer Pub. Co., 2006. Also available in print (ref RT81.5 .E53 2006).
- Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. Detroit, MI : Gale Group, 2001. Also available in print (ref R733 .G34 2001).
- Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer : a guide to cancer and its treatments, 3rd ed. Ellen Thackery, editor. Detroit : Gale Group, Thomson Learning, c2010.
- Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Detroit, Mich. : Gale, c2003. Also available in print (ref RC437 .G35 2003)
- Gorman, Linda M. Psychosocial Nursing for General Patient Care, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co., 2002 (RC440 .G659 2002). A handbook.
- Joyce, Esperanza Villanueva Say it in Spanish : a guide for health care professionals. St. Louis : Saunders, c2004 (ref R121 .J69 2004)
- Miller, Benjamin Frank Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, & Allied Health, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003 (ref R121 .M65 2003)
- NANDA-I Nursing Diagnoses : definitions & classification, 2007-2008. Philadelphia : NANDA International, c2007 (ref RT48.6 .N36 2007)
- Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), 5th ed. St. Louis, Mo. : Mosby/Elsevier, c2008 (ref RT42 .N858 2008)
- Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), 4th ed. St. Louis, Mo. : Mosby Elsevier, c2008 (ref RT85.5 .N864 2008)
- Powers, Bethel Ann A Dictionary of Nursing Theory and Research, 3rd ed. New York, NY : Springer Pub. Co., c2006. Also available in print (RT81.5 .P69 2006).
- Ralph, Sheila Sparks Sparks & Taylor's Nursing Diagnosis Reference Manual, 8th ed. Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, c2011 (RT48.6 .S66 2011)
- Skidmore-Roth, Linda Mosby's Drug Guide for Nurses, 8th rev. ed. St Louis, Mo. : Mosby Elsevier, c2009 (RM301.12 .S562 2009)
- Skidmore-Roth, Linda Mosby's Nursing Drug Reference, 24th ed. St. Louis : Mosby, c2011 (ref RM138 .S59 2011)
- Stedman, Thomas Lathrop Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, c2006 (ref R121 .S8 2006)
- Webster's new world medical dictionary, 3rd ed., fully rev. and updated. Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley Pub., c2008.
Guides to the Literature and Research Methods:
- Brockopp, Dorothy Young Fundamentals of Nursing Research, 3rd ed. Sudbury, Mass. : Jones & Bartlett, c2003 (RT81.5 .B76 2003)
- Burns, Nancy The Practice of Nursing Research : conduct, critique & utilization, 5th ed. St. Louis, Mo. : Elsevier/Saunders, c2005 (RT81.5 .B86 2005)
- Burns, Nancy Understanding Nursing Research : building an evidence-based practice, 5th ed. St. Louis, MO : Saunders/Elsevier, c2011 (RT81.5 .B863 2011)
- Capturing Nursing History : a guide to historical methods in research. Sandra B. Lewenson, Eleanor Krohn Herrmann, editors. New York : Springer Pub., c2008. Also available in print (RT31 .C37 2008)
- Encyclopedia of Research Design. Neil J. Salkind, editor. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage, c2010.
- Hek, Gill Making Sense of Research: an introduction for health and social care practitioners, 3rd ed. London ; New York : Continuum, c2006 (RT81.5 .H45 2006)
- Hott, Jacqueline Rose Notter's Essentials of Nursing Research, 6th ed. New York, N.Y. : Springer, 1999 (RT81.5 .N67 1999)
- LoBiondo-Wood, Geri & Judith Haber Nursing research : methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice, 7th ed. St. Louis Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier, c2010 (RT81.5 .N8665 2010)
- Polit-O'Hara, Denise Essentials of Nursing Research: appraising evidence for nursing practice, 7th ed. Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, c2010 (RT81.5 .P63 2010)
- Speziale, Helen Streubert Qualitative Research in Nursing : advancing the humanistic imperative, 4th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, c2007 (RT81.5 .S78 2007)
The HSU Library Catalog is the guide to books, periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers), videos, compact discs, DVDs, etc. in the HSU Library. Most older government documents (United States and California) are not included in the Library Catalog. Beginning in March 1998, U.S. government documents are in the Library Catalog as are California state documents published after mid-1999. For information on how to search the HSU Library Catalog, see WebVoyage Help Contents. The default screen is for the Basic Search. You may conduct more complex searches using the Advanced Search option.
- If you are not looking for a particular book or if you do not know the author or title, you must look by subject. You may search for a subject by using the Subjects tab. If that doesn't work, you can do an All Fields search. Brainstorm and use synonyms to describe your topic. When you find one really good book on your topic, you can look at the Subjects portion of the record for that book and use the link(s) to find other books on the same subject.
- If you browse the shelves around the book you want, you may find other books of interest. This is because the Library of Congress classification system used in HSU Library is based on the subject of the book. You may notice from the list of books above that medical books are in the R classification. Generally, nursing books are in RT but nursing specialties are in the classification of the specialty; e.g., pediatric nursing books are in RJ. For more information, see the Library of Congress Classification Outline.
- Masters theses done at HSU are added to the Library's collection and may be found by searching the HSU Library Catalog for the author, title, subject, and/or department. See Theses and Dissertations for more information. Two print copies of all HSU theses are housed in the HSU Library. Since 2005, electronic copies of HSU theses have been added to Humboldt Digital Scholar, with links to the full text from the HSU Library Catalog.
- Books tend to treat a subject in depth but are generally not the most current source of information, especially in the rapidly changing areas of science and medicine.
- Journals (aka periodicals) are usually the most current sources of research information and may appear in print and/or electronic formats. However, individual periodical articles are not indexed in the Library Catalog. You must use Databases to find articles on your topic.
Articles in journals may be found by using Databases that index the literature related to nursing and health. Most of these databases (or indexes) also provide summaries (abstracts) of the articles as well as links to the full text of the article. For this reason, databases may also be referred to as Indexes/Abstracts.
The databases most appropriate for research in nursing, health and medicine may be found at Articles and Databases: Nursing & Health.
In addition to journal articles, indexes/abstracts may also index articles/reports published in conference proceedings, government documents, technical reports, dissertations, and other sources. Indexes/abstracts vary in scope, depth and breadth of subject coverage. The Research Roadmap: Searching online tutorial and the Search Strategy Worksheet give a step-by-step description of how to develop your search. There are also search strategy guides tailored to science: Identifying Concepts and Generating Search Terms and AND, OR, NOT (Boolean Operators).
NOTE: Most electronic indexes/abstracts/databases are available only to HSU faculty, students and staff. You will need to identify yourself in order to search them. For more information, watch our captioned video: Access the Library Databases from Off-Campus.
In addition to the databases listed on Articles and Databases: Nursing & Health, there is a print index in our reference collection which is good for retrospective searching:
Nursing Studies Index (ref RT 1 Y35), prepared by Yale University School of Nursing, is an annotated guide to analytical, historical, and biographical aspects of nursing literature. It covers 1900-59 so is especially useful for retrospective searching. Only English language publications are indexed.
If you know of a particularly relevant or "classic" article on your topic, you may use the Cited References feature of CINAHL Plus with Full Text to locate more recent articles that cite or acknowledge that relevant article. The principle here is that the citing article is on a subject closely related to that of the earlier article. To use this feature, simply click on the Cited References link under the More tab on the toolbar at the top of the CINAHL Plus with Full Text search screen and enter the cited author, etc., into the search form.
If you do not find enough cited references in CINAHL Plus with Full Text, another good way to search citations is to use Google Scholar. The Advanced Scholar Search option is the best way to search for articles which cite a known article. Please see our captioned video tutorial, Advanced Research Skills: Citation Searching, for more information. More ways to search citations may also be found in the Citation Searching section of Searching the Scientific Literature.
Listed below are several databases that will send you the table of contents when a new issue of a key journal is available. Some of these databases will also run your stored search strategy periodically and send you any new references that result from the search.
CINAHL Plus with Full Text - You may save your search and set up search alerts to be run automatically. This may be done from the Search Results list by clicking on the Alert/Save/Share link. You must have a My EBSCOhost account to get your results via email.
ScienceDirect - Elsevier's full text database of over 1,200 Elsevier Science and Academic Press journals has three types of alerts: (1) Search Alerts of articles added that match a saved search strategy; (2) New Issue Alerts which send tables of contents as issues are published; and (3) Topic Alerts which are predefined searches on a specific topic, such as inorganic chemistry. Topic alerts notify you by email when new documents on a particular topic are available.
SpringerLink - SpringerLink, which has more than 2,200 online journals published by Springer and Kluwer, from 1997 forward, will notify you of the latest research developments in your field of interest. You can sign up for table of contents alerts to keep up in your field of interest.
Wiley Online Library - Wiley-Blackwell's full text database of over 1500 journals has a Alerts service which sends tables of contents as soon as issues are published. You may also save a search and have any new content matching your search criteria sent to you via email. Individual users may register to create personal home pages incorporating data files, article links, and stored searches.
Once you have a list of citations or references on the topic you are researching, you must determine if HSU Library has the article, book, report or document cited. While you are searching a database, click on the icon next to each citation and a link to full text availability of that article or book will appear.
If there is no icon, see if there is another link to full text. If not, check the HSU Library Catalog if the reference is to a book, report, dissertation, or other non-serial publication. If the reference is to an article in a journal, annual review or other serially published title, the best way to determine if it is available is to use the Journal and Newspaper Finder, a searchable guide to the 15,000 journals, magazines, newspapers and other serials accessible online (fulltext) as well as to the print periodicals & serials in HSU Library. The Journal and Newspaper Finder has been enhanced with common periodical abbreviations. Using the contains (or keyword) search option you can search an abbreviation, e.g., jognn, and retrieve Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing.
If you have a full reference to an article that includes at least the year, volume, issue and starting pages of your article, you may use the Citation Linker to locate it if the Journal and Newspaper Finder indicates that the full text of the journal is available in electronic format for the date(s) of interest.
Indexes/Abstracts/Databases often use abbreviations in their citations which you may need to decipher. There are several online resources where you can find the full title for an abbreviated one. Use NCBI Journal Browser to search for abbreviations found in Medline. You may also use All That JAS: Journal Abbreviation Sources and other resources listed on Journal Title Abbreviations to locate abbreviations and what the full titles are. Do not guess at what abbreviations mean! If you still cannot find the full title for a journal, please ask a librarian for assistance.
Remember that most government documents prior to 1998 are not listed in the HSU Library Catalog. If you wish to find a government document, consult the guides: How to Find Federal Documents in the HSU Library and How to Find California Documents in the HSU Library. You may also ask a reference librarian for assistance at the Reference/Information Desk on the first floor (hours) or in the Humboldt Room, room 308 (hours).
If the Library does not have the book, report, document, article, etc. which you need, you may request it through Interlibrary Loan (ILL). See Interlibrary Loan Policies & Guidelines and/or watch our captioned video Using Interlibrary Loan for more information. Requests may be placed by logging on to the Interlibrary Loan System. There are also links to the ILL System from pages when the HSU Library doesn't have full text. This process can take as long as TWO WEEKS for books and ONE WEEK for articles so it is a good idea to begin your research early.
There are many resources of nursing and medical information available on the Internet and World Wide Web. A list of selected Nursing Resources on the Web highlights some important sites.
You must critically evaluate the resources found online (as well as in the Library) by asking yourself the following questions:
- Is the author an authority? What are his or her credentials?
- Is the journal or source document (online or print) reputable?
- Was valid methodology used?
- Were valid conclusions drawn?
- and so on....
Be especially careful when surfing the Web!! It is extremely important to critically evaluate all health-related information you find on the Web. The following references will help you decide what to look for (and look out for) when surfing:
- Evaluating Information Found on the Internet
- From Johns Hopkins University.
- Evaluating Information: Applying the CRAAP Test
- A list of questions from the Meriam Library at CSU Chico to ask yourself in order to determine the reliability of the information you find.
- Evaluation of Medical Information
- A nice summary, including a review of the scientific method, from Ted Humphry, MD, a local pediatrician.
- Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode)
- According to the introduction, "The Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (HONcode) for medical and health Web sites addresses one of Internet's main healthcare issues: the reliability and credibility of information." It has a questionnaire you can answer to help you decide how reliable and accurate a web site is.
- Published criteria for evaluating health related web sites: review
- This article from the March 6, 1999 issue of BMJ( British Medical Journal ) reviews published criteria for specifically evaluating health related information on the world wide web, and identifies areas of consensus.
- Reliability of Health Information for the Public on the World Wide Web: Systematic Survey of Advice on Managing Fever in Children at Home
- An excellent article published in BMJ( British Medical Journal ) on June 28, 1997. It emphasizes the need for critical evaluation of medical information on the web and shows just how much inaccurate information is out there.
- Research Roadmap: Evaluating
- This section of the Research Roadmap online workshop from HSU Library offers criteria for evaluating your research strategies and for evaluating the credibility and usefulness of information sources.
- Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Evaluating Web Resources
- Developed by Sharon Chadwick, HSU Librarian, this site has a Checklist in addition to a Powerpoint presentation.
- Thinking Critically about World Wide Web Resources - from UCLA Library.