# History of Mathematics

A Guide to Doing Research in the HSU Library

**Before beginning your research project, it
is recommended that you think about how comprehensive your research must
be, how current your sources of information need to be, and your intended
audience's level of expertise. Then define your research topic as specifically
as possible and don't be afraid to refine your topic as you learn more
about it. Suggested guidelines for doing library research follow
and may be adapted to fit your needs.**

### Table of Contents

- How do I find background information on my topic?
- How do I find books on my topic?
- How do I find articles on my topic?
- Mathematics Indexes
- History Indexes
- Biography Indexes
- Another way to research -- via citations!
- Does the Library have the item I need?
- If the Library doesn't have the item, where can I get it?
- What about resources on the Internet/Web?
- Critically evaluate the information you find

### How do I find background information on my topic?

#### Reference Materials

Reference materials can provide you with background information, major theories
or researchers, and definitions of key terms. Print and selected electronic
reference materials are listed in the **HSU
Library Catalog** and may be located by adding terms such as *encyclopedia?,
director?, dictionar?, *etc. to your search. You might also try searching
for electronic and print reference materials by choosing **Reference
Collection **** (including Eref)** from the pull-down

**"Limit To:"**menu. Some of the reference sources in HSU Library are listed below:

General

(includes the Merriam-Webster Dictionary & Thesaurus)Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 2nd edition. Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2003. (Ref QA 5 W45 2003)CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics- Mathematical Society of Japan.
. 2nd edition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. (Ref QA 5 I8313 1987) - 4 volume setEncyclopedic Dictionary of MathematicsBiographical Information

. 22nd edition. NY: Bowker, 2005. (Ref CT 213 A4) - Earlier editions (1944-65) are in book collection (second floor, south) (CT 213 A4). TheAmerican Men and Women of Science: Physical and Biological Sciences21st edition (2003)is available online.. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979. (Ref Q 141 E37) Scope: birthdates 1606-1867.Biographical Dictionary of American Science: the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuriesNew York : Marshall Cavendish, c1999. (Ref QA 28 B544 1999) - 2 volume workBiographical Encyclopedia of Mathematicians.- Cook, Mariana Ruth.
. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009. (QA 28 C559 2009) - This book contains photographs of 92 current mathematicians along with brief autobiographical accounts of what drives them to pursue mathematics. Includes famous mathematcians such as John Nash (subject of the filmMathematicians:an outer view of the inner worldA Beautiful Mind) and Benoit Mandelbrot (fractals in geometry and nature).. NY: Scribner, 1970-. (Ref Q 141 D5) - 18 volume set.Dictionary of Scientific Biography- McElroy, Tucker.
. New York : Facts On File, c2005. (QA 28 M395 2005)A to Z of Mathematicians- National Academy of Sciences.
. Washington: National Academy of Sciences. (Q 141 N2) Series of volumes containing brief biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published scientific contributions. (HSU Library has vol. 26-82 in print format.) - Latest volume has cumulative index for entire series. All 1500+ memoirs are also availableBiographical Memoirsonlinethrough the publisher's site. They may also be found by searching theHSU Library Catalogfor the titleand selectingBiographical Memoirsfrom the pull-downElectronic Books"Limit To:"menu..- Poggendorff, J.C.
Leipzig: J.A. Barth, 1863-. (Ref Q 141 P64) Authoritative German language handbook series. Full biographical information and published works of mathematicians and other physical science scientists of all countries. Article titles are cited in the language in which they were published.J. C. Poggendorffs biographisch-literarisches Handwörterbuch für Mathematik, Astronomie, Physik mit Geophysik, Chemie, Kristallographie und verwandte Wissensgebiete ...- Young, Robyn V.
. Detroit: Gale, 1998. (Ref QA 28 N66 1998)Notable Mathematicians : From Ancient Times to the PresentHistory of Science and Mathematics

- Grattan-Guinness, I., ed.
. London: Routledge, 1994. (Ref QA 21 C645 1994) - 2 volume setCompanion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences. London: Mansell, 1971- Coverage: 6 volume set covers 1913-65 (Ref Q 125 I85); 2 volume set covers 1966-75 (Ref Q 125 I852); 2 volume set covers 1976-85 (Ref Q 125 I853 1989); 4 volume set covers 1986-95 (Ref Q 125 I853 1997)ISIS Cumulative Bibliography: A Bibliography of the History of Science- Parkinson, Claire L.
. Boston, MA : G.K. Hall, 1985. (Ref Q 125 P327 1985)Breakthroughs : A Chronology of Great Achievements in Science and Mathematics, 1200-1930Women in Science and Mathematics

- Grinstein, Louise and Campbell, Paul J., eds.
. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1987. (Ref QA 28 W66 1987)Women of Mathematics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook- McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch.
. 2nd edition. Seacaucus NJ: Carol Pub. Group, 1998. (Ref Q 141 M358 1998) - also available as anNobel Prize Women in Science: Their Lives, Struggles, and Momentous Discoverieselectronic book- Morrow, Charlene and Perl, Teri, eds.
Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1998. (Ref QA 28 N68 1998)Notable Women in Mathematics : A Biographical Dictionary.- Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey.
. New York : Routledge, 2000. (Ref Q 141 B5285 2000) - 2 volumesThe Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science : Pioneering Lives from Ancient Times to the Mid-20th Century- Siegel, Patricia Joan and Finley, Kay Thomas.
. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985. (Ref Q 141 S54) Has a chapter on mathematicians.Women in the Scientific Search: An American Bio-bibliography, 1724-1979- Yount, Lisa.
. New York, NY : Facts on File, c1999. (Ref Q 141 Y675 1999)A to Z of Women in Science and Math

### How do I find out if the Library has books on my topic?

**HSU
Library Catalog** is the guide to books, periodicals and media in
the HSU Library. **United
States government documents** prior to 1998 and **California
state documents** prior to 1999 are not listed in **HSU
Library Catalog**. For information on how to search the **HSU
Library Catalog**, see
**WebVoyage Help Contents**. The default screen is for the **Basic
Search**. You may conduct more complex searches using the **Advanced
Search **option - simply click on the **Advanced** tab.

- You can use the
**Catalog****Tab**on the**Library home page**to search by keyword, title, author, or subject. - If you are not looking for a particular book or if you do not know
the author or title, you can look by subject. You may search for a subject
by selecting
**Subject**from the**In/Within**pull-down menu or by using the**Subjects**tab. If that doesn't work, you can do an**All Fields**search. Brainstorm and use synonyms to describe your topic. When you find one really good book on your topic, you can look at the**Subjects**portion of the record for that book and use the link(s) to find other books on the same subject. - If you browse the shelves around the book you want, you may find other
books of interest. This is because the
**Library of Congress classification system**used in HSU Library is based on theof the book. Mathematics is found mainly in the**subject****QA**classification as seen in this breakdown of the**Q (Science)**classification. - Books tend to treat a subject in depth but are generally not the most current source of information, especially in the rapidly changing areas of science and medicine.
- Periodicals are usually the most current sources of research information
in printed form.
*However, periodical articles are not indexed in HSU Library Catalog. One must use***Databases**to find articles on your topic.

**Selected books**** **in the history of mathematics are listed
below. This list does not attempt to include many books on the history of
specific topics within mathematics, for example, numerical analysis or differential
equations. Use the **HSU
Library Catalog** to find books on specific topics of interest.

General Histories

- Anglin, W.S.
. NY: Springer-Verlag, 1994. (QA 21 A54 1994)Mathematics: A Concise History and Philosophy- Ball, Walter W.R.
. NY: Dover, 1960. (QA 21 B18 1960) Reprint of 1908 edition.A Short Account of the History of Mathematics- Bell, Eric T.
. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1940. (QA 21 B4)The Development of Mathematics- Boyer, Carl B.
. Second edition. NY: Wiley, 1989. (QA 21 B767 1989)History of Mathematics- Burton, David M.
. Sixth edition. Boston : New York : McGraw-Hill, c2007. (QA 21 B96 2007)The History of Mathematics : An Introduction- Cajori, Florian A.
. La Salle, IL: The Open Court Pub. Co., 1928-29. (QA 21 C135) - 2 volumesA History of Mathematical Notations- Cajori, Florian A.
. Fifth edition. Providence, R.I. : AMS Chelsea, 1991. (QA 21 C15 1991)History of Mathematics- Calinger, Ronald, ed.
. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995. (QA 21 C55 1995) An anthology of selected writings of leading mathematicians from classical antiquity through the early twentieth century.Classics of Mathematics- Campbell-Kelly, Martin, ed.
. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2003. (QA 47 H57 2003)The History of Mathematical Tables : From Sumer to Spreadsheets- Cooke, Roger.
. Second edition. New York : Wiley, c2005. (QA 21 C649 2005)The History of Mathematics : A Brief Course- Dunham, William.
. NY: Wiley & Sons, 1994. (QA 21 D785 1994)The Mathematical Universe: An Alphabetical Journey through the Great Proofs, Problems, and Personalities- Eagle, M. Ruth.
. New York : Cambridge University Press, 1995. (QA 21 E24 1995)Exploring Mathematics through History- Eves, Howard.
. Sixth edition. Philadelphia: Saunders College Pub., c1990. (QA 21 E8 1990)An Introduction to the History of Mathematics. Compiled by William Ewald. New York : Oxford University Press, 1999. (QA 8.6 F77 1999) - 2 volume set. (From Kant to Hilbert : A Source Book in the Foundations of MathematicsVolume IandVolume IIare also available aselectronic books)- Grattan-Guinness, Ivor.
. New York : W.W. Norton, 1998. (QA 21 G695 1998)The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences : The Rainbow of Mathematics- Hawking, S.W. (Stephen W.)
. Philadelphia, PA. : Running Press, c2005. (QA 21 G63 2005)God Created the Integers : the Mathematical Breakthroughs that Changed History- Hodgkin, Luke Howard.
. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, c2005. (QA21 .H68 2005eb - electronic book)A History of Mathematics : from Mesopotamia to Modernity- Joseph, George G.
. Third edition. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2011. (QA 21 J684 2011)The Crest of the Peacock: the Non-European Roots of Mathematics- Kenschaft, Patricia C.
. Providence, R.I. : American Mathematical Society, c2005. (QA 10.5 K46 2005)Change is Possible : Stories of Women and Minorities in Mathematics- Knoebel, Arthur.
. New York : Springer, c2007 (QA 21 M358 2007)Mathematical Masterpieces : Further Chronicles by the Explorers- Krantz, Steven G.
. [Washington, DC] : Mathematical Association of America, c2010. (QA 21 K73 2010)An Episodic History of Mathematics : Mathematical Culture through Problem Solving- Lanczos, Cornelius.
. London: Academic Press, 1970. (QA 21 L28)Space Through the Ages: The Evolution of Geometrical Ideas from Pythagoras to Hilbert and Einstein- Mankiewicz, Richard.
. Princeton : Princeton University Press, 2000. (QA 21 M35 2000)The Story of Mathematics- McLeish, John.
. NY: Fawcett Columbine, 1992. (QA 21 M38 1992)Number- Mikami, Yoshio.
. New York: Chelsea, 1961. (QA 27 C5 M5 1961) - Reprint of the 1913 edition.The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan. Edited by Eleanor Robson and Jacqueline Stedall. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2009 (QA 21 O94 2009)Oxford Handbook of the History of Mathematics- Simmons, George F.
. Washington, DC : Mathematical Association of America, c2007 (QA 21 S56 2007) - An interesting book that has two parts. The first part is "a biographical history of mathematics from the earliest times to the late nineteenth century."Calculus Gems : Brief Lives and Memorable Mathematics- Stillwell, John.
. Second edition. NY: Springer, 2002. (QA 21 S84 2002)Mathematics and Its History- Swetz, Frank, ed.
. Chicago : Open Court, c1994. (QA 21 F76 1994)From Five Fingers to Infinity : A Journey through the History of Mathematics- Wardhaugh, Benjamin.
. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c2010. (QA 21 W324 2010) - This book introduces readers to the analytical questions historians ask when deciphering historical texts.How to Read Historical Mathematics- Wilson, Alistair Macintosh.
. New York : Oxford University Press, 1995. (QA 21 W385 1995)The Infinite in the Finite- Young, L.C.
. NY: Elsevier North-Holland, 1981. (QA 21 Y68)Mathematicians and Their Times: History of Mathematics and Mathematics of HistorySpecial Periods

- Dilke, Oswald A.W.
. Berkeley, Calif. : University of California Press ; London : British Museum, c1987. (QA 22 D55 1987)Mathematics and Measurement- Duren, Peter, ed.
. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, c1988-c1989. (QA 27 U5 C46 1988) - 3 volume set - covers the 20th century.A Century of Mathematics in America- Eves, Howard.
. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America, 1981. (QA 21 E796 1981)Great Moments in Mathematics (after 1650)- Eves, Howard.
. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America, 1980. (QA 21 E797)Great Moments in Mathematics (before 1650)- Fowler, D. H.
. Second edition. Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1999. (QA22 F69 1999)The Mathematics of Plato's Academy : a New Reconstruction- Grattan-Guinness, I., ed.
. London: Duckworth, 1980. (QA 21 F77)From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630-1910: an Introductory History- Gray, Jeremy.
Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c2008. (QA 26 G73 2008) -also available as anPlato's Ghost : the Modernist Transformation of Mathematics.electronic book.- Gray, Jeremy.
. New York ; London : Springer, 2007. (QA 443.5 G73 2007)Worlds Out of Nothing : a Course in the History of Geometry in the 19th Century- Hay, Cynthia, ed.
. Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1988. (QA 23 M28 1988)Mathematics from Manuscript to Print, 1300-1600- Heath, Thomas Little.
. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1965. (QA 22 H4) - 2 volume set (v.1 covers Thales to Euclid, v.2 covers Ariistarchus to Diophantus)A History of Greek Mathematics- Hofmann, Joseph E.
. New York : Philosophical Library, [1960, c1959]. (QA 24 H643)Classical Mathematics: a concise history of the classical era in mathematics- Lam, Lay Yong and Ang, Tian Se.
. Revised edition. Singapore ; River Edge, NJ : World Scientific, c2004. (QA 27 C5 L35 2004) -also available as anFleeting Footsteps: Tracing the Conception of Arithmetic and Algebra in Ancient Chinaelectronic book.- Kolmogorov, A.N., ed.
. Basel ; Boston : Birkhäuser Verlag, 1992. (QA 26 M27813 1992)Mathematics of the 19th Century: Mathematical Logic, Algebra, Number Theory, Probability Theory- Neugebauer, Otto.
. Second edition. Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 1957. (QA 22 N36 1957)The Exact Sciences in Antiquity- Struik, Dirk J.
. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1969. (QA 21 S88)A Source Book in Mathematics, 1200-1800- Swetz, Frank J.
. La Salle IL: Open Court, 1987. (QA 23 S94 1987) Includes the first English translation of theCapitalism and Arithmetic: The New Math of the 15th Centuryof 1478, the earliest printed work on arithmetic.Treviso Arithmetic- Van Brummelen, Glen.
. Princeton ; Oxford : Princeton University Press, c2009. (QA 24 V36 2009)The Mathematics of the Heavens and the Earth : the Early History of Trigonometry

### How do I find articles in periodicals on my topic?

#### Databases

Linked below are lists of the databases most appropriate for research
in the history of mathematics. In addition to periodical articles, databases
may also index articles/reports published in conference proceedings, government
documents, technical reports, dissertations, and other sources. Databases
vary in scope, depth and breadth of subject coverage. The **Research
Roadmap: Searching** online tutorial and the **Search
Strategy Worksheet** give a step-by-step description of how to develop
a search strategy for finding articles using databases. There are
also search strategy guides tailored to science: **Identifying
Concepts and Generating Search Terms** and **AND,
OR, NOT (Boolean Operators)**.

*Unless otherwise noted, databases are available only to HSU faculty,
students and staff. If you are trying to connect from off-campus,
you will need to "authenticate" yourself in order to connect to the databases.
You will need to input your campus email login ID and password.
See ***Off
Campus Access to Databases** *for more information on how to do
this.*

**Articles and Databases : Mathematics**- Includes recommended databases in the history of mathematics. If you search**MathSciNet**,**01**is thefor**Mathematical Subject Classification or MSC****History and Biography**and should be added to the search in the box marked**MSC Primary**.**Articles and Databases : History**- A more in-depth list of history databases you can use if you don't find what you want in**Articles and Databases : Mathematics****Biography Indexes**- You can limit your search to*Academic Search Elite*,**biography****interview**by using the**obituary**menu.**Document Type**

- You can limit your search to*OmniFile Full Text Mega*and/or**Autobiography, Biography, Collective Biographies, Contains Biographical Material, Individual Biographies,**by using the**Obituary**pull-down menu.**Document Type****MathSciNet**-**01**is thefor**Mathematical Subject Classification or MSC****History and Biography**and should be added to the search in the box marked**MSC Primary**.- Other biography resources may be found on
**History of Mathematics Resources on the Web**.

### Another way to do research -- Citation Searching!!!

If you know of a particularly relevant or "classic" article on your topic,
you may use **Citation
Searching** to locate more recent articles which *cite *that
relevant or classic article. **Google
Scholar** is useful when searching citations. The **Advanced
Scholar Search** option is the best way to search for articles which
cite a known article. Search help may be found at **Searching
Google Scholar** and **Advanced
Scholar Search Tips**. Please see our captioned video tutorial, **Advanced
Research Skills: Citation Searching****,** More ways to search
citations may be found in the **Citation
Searching**** **section of **Searching
the Scientific Literature**.

### How do I find out if the Library has the item I need?

Once you have a list of citations or references on the topic you are researching, you must determine if HSU Library has the article, book, report or document cited. While you are searching a database, click on the icon (or other availability link) next to each citation and a link to full text availability of that item will appear.

If there is no icon, see if
there is another link to full text. If not, check the **HSU
Library Catalog** if the reference is to a book, report, dissertation,
or other non-serial publication. If the reference is to an article in a
journal or other serially published title, the best way to determine if
it is available is to use the **Journal &
Newspaper Finder**** **(or Journals Tab), a searchable guide to
the more than 15,000 journals, magazines, newspapers and other serials accessible
online (fulltext) as well as to the periodicals & serials in HSU
Library. The **Journal &
Newspaper Finder** has been enhanced with common periodical abbreviations.
Using the ** contains **(or

**) search option you can search an abbreviation, e.g.,**

*keyword***am math mon**, and retrieve

*American Mathematical Monthly*.

If you have a full reference to an article that includes at least the year,
volume, issue and starting pages of your article, you may use the **Citation
Linker** to locate it if the **Journal &
Newspaper Finder** indicates that the full text of the journal is
available in electronic format for the date(s) of interest.

Indexes and abstracts often use abbreviations in their citations which
you *may* need to decipher. Many indexes and abstracts publish separate
lists of the abbreviations used. The list for the **MathSciNet**
database is available at **Search
the Journals Database (MathSciNet)**. You may also use **All
That JAS: Journal Abbreviation Sources** and other resources listed
on **Journal
Title Abbreviations** to locate abbreviations and their full titles.
**Do not guess at what abbreviations mean!**

Remember that most government documents are not listed in HSU Library
Catalog. If you wish to find a government document, consult the guides:
**How
to Find Federal Documents in the HSU Library** and **How
to Find California Documents in the HSU Library**. You may also
ask a reference librarian for assistance at the Reference Desk on the first
floor (**hours**)
or in the Humboldt Room, room 308 (**hours**).

### What if the Library doesn't have the item I need?

If the Library does not have the book, report, document, article, etc.
which you need, you may request it through Interlibrary Loan (ILL). See
**Interlibrary
Loan Policies & Guidelines** and/or watch our captioned video
**Using
Interlibrary Loan** for more information. Requests may be placed
by logging on to the **Interlibrary
Loan System**. There are also links to the ILL System from
pages when the HSU Library doesn't have full text. This process can take
as long as TWO WEEKS for books and ONE WEEK for articles so it is a good
idea to begin your research early.

### What about resources available on the Internet or World Wide Web?

There are many resources on the history of mathematics available on the Internet
and World Wide Web. **History
of Mathematics Resources on the Web** highlights the most important
sites.

### A final caveat:

You must ** critically evaluate** the resources found online (as well as in the Library) by asking yourself the following questions:

- Is the author an authority? What are his or her credentials?
- Is the journal or source document (online or print) reputable? Is it peer-reviewed?
- Was valid methodology used?
- Were valid conclusions drawn?

More detailed information on how to evaluate resources may be found in the following:

**Research Roadmap: Evaluating**- This online tutorial from HSU Library offers criteria for evaluating sources of information that you have found in the Library or on the Internet. It shows you how to determine the credibility of information and whether it is suitable for your research project.**Critically Analyzing Information Sources**- from Cornell University.**Evaluating Information: Applying the CRAAP Test**- A list of questions from the Meriam Library at CSU Chico to ask yourself in order to determine the reliability of the information you find.

**Be especially careful
when surfing the Web!!** The following references are especially
helpful and tell you what to look for (and look out for):

**Evaluating Information Found on the Internet**- from Johns Hopkins University.**Thinking Critically about World Wide Web Resources**- from UCLA Library.